As we were watching in awe how large container ships were guided through the Miraflores locks of the Panama Canal, I wondered if the tourists around us were aware of the on-going expansion of the Panama Canal, co-financed by IFC, ADC, IADB, EIB and JBIC, and the emerging $40 billion competition in Nicaragua. (Shortlink: http://wp.me/p27qSt-yd)
The Panama Canal is an important element of the global marine transportation industry. It connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. The Panama Canal handles about 5 percent of marine trade among all major economies worldwide. However, about one third of the world's container ships are currently too big for the 50-mile Panama canal. After construction of the new locks, larger and more economic container ships will be able to ship through the canal. The Panama Canal is also a significant revenue generator for the Panamanian Government. The Panama Canal generated almost $10 billion in tax revenue for Panama since the U.S. handed over control at the end of 1999.
Sipping coffee while overlooking the Miraflores locks, we could see (barely) some of the construction activities which were taking place in the distant background. (A few months later, I had a chance to see some of the expansion work more closely - see image below). According to a December 2008 press release, the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Andean Development Corporation (ADC), the European Investment Bank (EIB), the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) provided a long term loan over $2.3 billion for the expansion of the Panama Canal (total cost $5.25 billion). This expansion includes building new water-saving locks and improving navigational channels.
More recent news (August 2014) highlights the dispute over $1.6 billion in cost overruns for the on-going expansion project. There are also concerns about impact of Climate Change, which is expected to result in more frequent closures and delays (read: higher fees). So, the Panama Canal remains very exciting, in every meaning of the word.
I was fascinated by the history of the Canal, which is summarized in Wikipedia (and Caterpillar with some interesting images): France began work on the canal in 1881, but had to stop because of engineering problems and high mortality due to disease. Later on, the US took over the project and needed a decade to complete the canal in 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut made it possible for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in half the time previously required.
Will the Chinese-Nicaragua rival to the Panama Canal materialize? Will it be able to rival the Panama Canal which is considered one of the seven wonders of the modern world? - What was your impression when you visited the Panama Canal?